Heterojunction (HJT) solar cells have many advantages, including high conversion efficiency, huge development potential, simple process, and clear cost reduction path. These advantages make it perfectly match the development law of photovoltaic industry and become the most potential next-generation battery technology. At present, the technology is in the industrial introduction period, and many new and old players have accelerated the production of HIT battery production lines. The global HIT battery production capacity has approached 3GW, and the planned production capacity of the main participants has exceeded 16GW, showing long-term investment value.

Over the years, scientists and engineers have been working on developing more efficient solar cells to harness more electricity from sunlight. Heterojunction solar cells, as an emerging technology, have brought new vitality to the consumer solar panel market.

For business owners looking to integrate building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) technology into their buildings, choosing the right type of panel can be confusing. This article will explore the latest heterojunction technology in depth to help you find the right BIPV roofing product for you.

What is a Heterojunction Solar Cell?

A heterojunction solar cell, also known as a HIT (Heterojunction with Intrinsic Thin layer) cell, is a type of photovoltaic cell that uses the same photovoltaic effect as traditional cells to generate electricity. However, it uses two different materials, amorphous silicon and crystalline silicon, for its P-N junction and has a unique double-sided symmetrical structure.

How is Heterojunction Solar Cell Made?

HJT technology is undoubtedly a boon for photovoltaic power plant owners. It can increase the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells to 24%, which means that the annual power generation of the power plant can be increased by about 7.6% under the same footprint.

In addition to its excellent conversion efficiency, HJT technology also has a simpler production process. Compared to PERC+ and TOPCon, which require more than 10 processes, the HJT process only requires a few steps:

  1. Etch and texture the surface of the silicon wafer after mechanical cutting, which is the same as the conventional cell process.
  2. Deposit an intrinsic amorphous silicon thin filmon both sides of the silicon wafer.
  3. Deposit a doped amorphous silicon thin film with opposite polarity.
  4. Prepare a TCO thin film, mainly by sputtering using physical vapor deposition (PVD) technology.
  5. Perform surface metallization on the top of the TCOto obtain a heterojunction cell.

Among them, cleaning and texturing and screen printing are the processes of traditional crystalline silicon cells, and the unique process of HJT lies in the deposition of amorphous silicon thin film and TCO film.

In summary, HJT technology is efficient and simple, and it is one of the future development directions of photovoltaic cell technology.

Heterojunction Solar Cells

What are the Advantages of Heterojunction Solar Cells?

Thanks to this, heterojunction cells exhibit many exciting advantages:

  • Higher conversion efficiency, which means stronger power generation capacity.
  • Excellent double-sided power generation capability, allowing it to make full use of light resources.
  • Almost unaffected by light attenuation, ensuring long-term stable power generation efficiency.
  • Good temperature characteristics, enabling it to maintain efficient operation in different environments.
  • Thinner silicon wafers can be used, which reduces production costs.
  • Compatible with new technologies such as perovskite cells, with broad development prospects.

In addition, the manufacturing process of heterojunction cells is relatively short, which provides greater space for future cost reduction.

solar panels for apartment balcony

Heterojunction Solar Power Has a Broad Future Prospect

Heterojunction technology has many advantages, attracting more and more companies to pay attention to and adopt it. Compared with the traditional PERC technology, the HJT manufacturing process is shorter and can save about four steps, which will bring significant cost reduction space. Although PERC technology has occupied the mainstream position in the industry for many years, its complex manufacturing process and poor high-temperature performance cannot be compared with HJT.

According to the International Photovoltaic Technology Roadmap (ITRPV) 2019 report, the market share of heterojunction cells is expected to reach 12% in 2026 and is further expected to increase to 15% in 2029. With the continuous maturity of technology and the continuous decline of cost, heterojunction solar energy will play a more important role in the future and inject new vitality into the development of photovoltaic industry.

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